NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

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NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

Postby Jed » Sat Jan 19, 2019 2:57 am

NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

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Q1 How many main characteristics of traditional/informal justice systems that explain the contribution to better access to crime control.


Q2 Is 􀳦??mob justice􀳦?􀳦 or lynching a sign of failure of state presence or that of the ineffective administration of informal social control mechanism?


Q3 As a matter of estimation, eighty to ninety percent of civil matters in developing countries are handled by the traditional social control mechanism.


Q4 State policies in Peru can neither facilitate or hinder reconciliation as a forged and lived process

---none of the options

Q5 Traditional mechanisms exist and have done so for years, providing a strong system of both governance and reconciliation, outside of the formal mechanisms imposed by the Western world


Q6 To stem the menace of bribery and corruption, law enforcement agents and the judiciary should swear on oath administered by the priest of Ayelala was a􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

Recommend ation

Q7 In order to bring back those glorious day when citizens had confidence in court

The police and the judiciary should be reformed again.

Q8 We wish to 􀳦??call on the Federal Government to make traditional institutions a fourth tier of legislative and administrative authority over matters beyond the capabilities of the police and judiciary in each state􀳦?􀳦. This statement attempt to

stem the menace of bribery and corruption among law enforcement agents and the judiciary
--- a & c
show that the weaknesses of the conventional justice system in Nigeria would have been effectively
showc ase the revolution in the juju traditional industries

Q9 In matters of superstition, which come before our courts, the court should deem it fit to consult medium like􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.. for clarification rather than petitioning such matters


Q10 How many streams of law are pre-eminent in Nigeria legal system?


Q11 Consultation of Ayelala is an offence?


Q12 The above statement has to do with a native who had planted juju around the􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦? 􀳦premises.


Q13 A person may lawfully hold a belief whether based on superstition or not, that by some intrinsically innocuous and inoffensive act, he can influence a decision of a􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦 his favor.


Q14 The belief in the effectiveness of a deity, divinity or Ayelala has never been in doubt even by the􀳦? 􀳦􀳦?􀳦..


Q15 Egbarevba asserts that 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.. is the method of detecting criminals.

Trial by ordeal

Q16 Uzere Juju is an example of􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..

An oracle

Q17 The features of pre-colonial system in crime control in Nigeria are

Oracle and supernatural forces

Q18 The indigenous customs and laws following European contact became

supplanted and obliterated

Q19 The very 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦once reposed in the judiciary has now stepped into􀳦?􀳦􀳦? 􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

confidence; wilderness

Q20 What the continental Africa once envied in Nigeria according to his course material is􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦? 􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦


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Re: NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

Postby Jed » Sat Jan 19, 2019 3:00 am

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Q21 The current legislation governing the Nigeria Police

Police Act CAP359 laws of the Federation of Nigeria,19 90

Q22 In􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..the government enacted a police Ordinance which provided uniform rules and regulations for the combined police forces


Q23 Ayelala was a

A slave woman

Q24 The world is a mystery means


Q25 Walking through the streets of Benin City today, will clearly reveal a return to traditional religious practices as calabashes of traditional religious sacrifices litter every nooks and crannies of the city.


Q26 One unique feature of Edo State is the seeming homogeneity of the people in (i) culture; (ii) language of the various constituent groups; (iii) local government areas; (iv) landscape

(i) only
(ii) on ly
(i), (ii) an d (iii)
---a and b

Q27 One among these is an Indigenous crime control instrument in the traditional African society


Q28 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦 means an incomprehensible world


Q29 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..has held the entire nation of Nigeria and particularly Benin City in Edo State spellbound


Q30 Effective policing in post-colonial Nigeria

Should be based primarily on the enforcemen t of laws and standards indigenous to Nigeria

Q31 To achieve a more effective and efficient social control in Nigeria; (i) governments, through their respective

(ii) only

Q32 Effective law enforcement in post-colonial Nigeria requires the following; (i) an official State understanding and acknowledgment of the current anomic social control condition in which the process of socializing the average Nigerian differs starkly from the behaviour standard imposed by the official English-style legal system. (ii) honest efforts by state social control agencies to synthesize and blend the imported English-style law enforcement system to Nigeria􀳦??s indigenous law enforcement systems widely available and applied in all parts of the country, while borrowing useful and relevant ideas from other African and world societies. (iii) English-style rules and regulations that diverge from the previously learned indigenous norms.

(i) only
(ii) only
---(i) and (i i) only
(iii) only

Q33 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦once advised African countries to re-conceptualize 􀳦??
development􀳦?􀳦 for their use.

The African w riter, Ali Mazrui

Q34 The overall demerit respecting avenues for law enforcement is

lack of coordination

Q35 The two main forms of law enforcement in postcolonial Africa are

official government and unofficial indigenous law enforcement

Q36 Responding to the complaints in question 4,􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.assured the
delegation that the􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..Government would immediately look into the issue and hold the suspects accountable.

Governor Obi; Anambra Sta te

Q37 􀳦??They started extorting money from us and killing us in order to enforce the payment􀳦?􀳦, the statement was written by who?

Anyanwu (20 07)

Q38 􀳦??They started extorting money from us and killing us in order to enforce the payment􀳦?􀳦, the statement was made by who?

Community members interv iewed in anambra state

Q39 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.ignored the wishes of the community members as well as an official court judgment allegedly against the group

The vigilante group

Q40 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦in a late night and early morning of early February 2007 gun 􀳦?? and machete-brandishing men of a local vigilante group terrorized the inhabitants of Okpoko community in Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria

According to Anyanwu (2007)

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Re: NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

Postby Jed » Sat Jan 19, 2019 10:39 am

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Q41 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.there is a danger of abuse of a traditional law enforcement system

According to Anyanwu (2007)

Q42 One of the key features of indigenous law enforcement is

its wide acceptance by the citizens

Q43 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..are typically ad hoc and often thoughtless

Less organized local social control

Q44 Less organized local attempts at social control, justice, and law enforcement are based on􀳦?􀳦􀳦?

mob action

Q45 less organized local attempts at social control results to

Mob action

Q46 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..are deliberate, coordinated efforts at control, justice, and law, even if these groups operate outside the official laws

the n eighbourhood

Q47 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.often seek to limit access to parts of the community by erecting temporary, movable obstacles on the roads that would slow vehicular and human traffic

Bakas i

Q48 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..are charged with the task of securing the community and enforcing the law, often with the aids of small weapons, such as machetes, bows and arrows, spears, and Some guns

Vigil ante

Q49 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.groups are more active in the night than during the day

Vigil ante

Q50 The watch organizations or vigilant groups exist in Nigeria to help guarantee

Security to the citizen of each community
Law and order to the citizen of each comm unity
stability to the citizen of each community
---all of the above

Q51 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦has gone so far to use the official NPF to intimidate, stifle, and break up the􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

The government; Bakasi Boys.

Q52 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦 government strongly opposes the adoption of the􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦? 􀳦and other indigenous law enforcement groups by various state governments in the country

Olusegun Obasanjo􀳦??s; Bakasi Boys

Q53 he new positions of OPC, BAKASI BOYS and HISHA stem from the fact that􀳦?􀳦.

the various official governments have, by official laws, formally recognized the different o rganizations

Q54 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦 organizations were initially conceived as purely unofficial, indigenous groups for law enforcement, have since 1999 assumed positions as official, indigenous-based groups

a, c, a nd d

Q55 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦Illustrate the largely, coordinated, and well-organized indigenous organizations for security, crime prevention, and law enforcement in African societies

---a, c, a nd d
Bakas i Boys

Q56 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..are able to accurately identify a criminal even among a large group of people, thus avoiding misidentification or punishment of an innocent person

Bakasi bo ys

Q57 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..move from one community to another fishing out suspected criminals

Bakasi bo ys

Q58 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..organization is over and above the official police in Nigeria

Bakasi bo ys

Q59 Bakasi Boys organization is widely regarded as an effective public security and law enforcement group in

South -eastern states of Nigeria

Q60 The Bakasi Boys and the OPC often use

indigenous African religious beliefs and pra ctices to insure the supernatural power with which organizations operate

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Re: NOUN TMA Questions and Answers: CSS356 - Traditional and Informal Mechanisms of Crime

Postby Jed » Sat Jan 19, 2019 10:45 am

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Q61 The Hisha is charged with

the responsibility of enforcing the state􀳦??s sharia system

Q62 These countries are popularly regarded as having ineffective official police forces and other official crime prevention structures are

Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, a nd South Africa

Q63 An unsatisfactory system of official security maintenance, crime prevention, and law enforcement in a modern African community will lead to

an increase in demand of alternative secu rity and law enforcement systems and organizations aimed at addressing the citizens􀳦?? desire for secure and ordered lives

Q64 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦. the negative images of the country􀳦??s official police lead directly to the intended or unintended exclusion of decent citizens from official policing

In the Nigerian example

Q65 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦 reports that in one case in Kenya a woman is robbed of jewelry worth fifty thousand dollars

Hammer (1993)

Q66 The source of three policemen to die for setting traders ablaze

The Guardian (April 3,2001)

Q67 Factors compounding the divide between Africa􀳦??s official security and law enforcement systems

unjustified official unitary policing
official police corruption
insufficient number of of ficial police officers and personnel
---all of the above

Q68 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..involve contests and struggles between indigenous and foreign (colonially imposed European) ideals (Okereafoezeke, 2006:202)

security maintenance in post-colonial Africa
crime prevention in post-colonial Africa
general law enforcement in post-colonial Africa
---all of the above

Q69 In the pre-colonial era, masquerade has the role of maintaining

law and order

Q70 The traditional Africa security maintenance crime prevention and general law enforcement are based on each

socie ty􀳦??s historical circumstances and desires.

Q71 What are the explanations Okafo (2005) identified for the continues existence and critical role of the okija and other indigenous agencies of law and order in Nigeria

Perceived ineffectiveness and Inefficiency of English Law and Justi ce

Q72 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.referring to the August 2004 Okija incident (in which the Nigeria Police Force recovered dozens of human skulls and decaying bodies at the site of Ogwugwu isiula, Okija, a traditional Igbo Shrine in Okija town) as an example of􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

Okafo (2005); traditional social control gone bad

Q73 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦should include credible relevant traditions, customs, and commands of political sovereigns or superiors

law in postcolonial Africa

Q74 Public control involves

group and community o rgans for controlsuch as traditional community police or vigilante services, village courts, and masquerades that enforce village, unofficial court judgments

Q75 A person may decide to conform or not to conform to societal expectations

on the person􀳦??s inherent
or learned dispositions and c onvictions
If a person is mistaken in an action or o mission or otherwise
---a & b above

Q76 􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦..remains potent for social control in􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

Igbo systems of justice, Africa

Q77 The following terms are used extensively and often times inter-changeable in discussions on traditional or formal mechanism in post-conflict societies

customary a nd local

Q78 What is an Informal mechanism of justice

dispute resolution mechanisms falling outside the scope of the formal justice system

Q79 What is the main problem with qualifying a justice mechanism as informal

the term may imply that it is simplistic
inferior or ad hoc
lacking in substan tive or procedural guidelines
---all of the above

Q80 Term informal justice system is used in the course material to􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦􀳦?􀳦.

draw a distinction between state-administered formal mech anism systems and non-state, administrated informal mechanism.

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